Physiography, topology, geology, climate, precipitation, capability to retain water and availability of water bodies are major factors which decide the types of vegetation and habitats which will be found in an ecosystem which in turn decides the type and number of animals an area can have. Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve contains steep hillocks with varying degree of slopes and rolling meadows with lush grasses in the valleys, which offer unique eco-systems and create diverse wildlife habitats, allowing a wide variety of species of plants and animals to flourish in the reserve.
The Reserve is rich in both floral as well as faunal diversity with over 510 species of flowering plants, about 37 recorded mammals, around 250 species of birds, more than 100 species of butterflies and a wide variety of reptiles. The reserve also has some of the rare species of plants and animals.
Within its broad, moist and dry forests, Bandhavgarh also contains few small pockets of microhabitats. These microhabitats are very sensitive and important since some plant species are only confined to these microhabitats. Some of the such ecologically sensitive areas are Andhiary Jhiriya, Bhitri Vah, Chakradhara Meadow, Ketkiha Vah, Sehara meadow and Kerha Vah. Over the years because of habitat development measures taken by park management, overall water availability within the park has improved there by enhancing the over all bio-diversity of the park.